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In classical architecture rustication is an architectural feature that contrasts in texture with the smoothly finished, squared block masonry surfaces called ashlar. Rusticated masonry is usually squared-off but left with a more or less rough outer surface and wide joints that emphasize the edges of each block. Rustication is often used to give visual weight to the ground floor in contrast to smooth ashlar above.

International style

was a major architectural style that emerged in the 1920s and 1930s, the formative decades of Modernist architecture. The term had its origin from the name of a book by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson written to record the International Exhibition of Modern Architecture held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1932 which identified, categorized and expanded upon characteristics common to Modernism across the world. As a result, the focus was more on the stylistic aspects of Modernism. Hitchcock's and Johnson's aims were to define a style of the time, which would encapsulate this modern architecture. They identified three different principles: the expression of volume rather than mass, balance rather than preconceived symmetry and the expulsion of applied ornament. All the works which were displayed as part of the exhibition were carefully selected, as only works which strictly followed the set of rules were displayed. Previous uses of the term in the same context can be attributed to Walter Gropius in Internationale Architektur, and Ludwig Hilberseimer in Internationale neue Baukunst.


In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs.

Pilaster strips (Lisene)

flat, vertical wall projection. Occurs in a place exposed to distending forces of the building (constructionsignificance) and serves as a division wall. Pilaster strips is different from the pilaster that there is no head or base.


is the name given to an architectural feature, originally of Italian design. They are often a gallery or corridor at ground level, sometimes higher, on the facade of a building and open to the air on one side, where it is supported by columns or pierced openings in the wall. Notably, Filippo Brunelleschi featured a loggia at the front of the Ospedale degli Innocenti (Hospital of the Innocents) in Florence, Italy.

Michejda Tadeusz

prominent modernist architect, creating in Upper Silesia in the interwar period, artist, painter, soldier of the Polish Legions, Silesian insurgent. He was born in 1895. Graduated from the Lviv Polytechnic. During 15 years in Silesia built more than fifty buildings. He founded and became the first president of the Silesian Association of Architects (subsequently converted into a branch established by the Association of Polish Architects of the Republic - SARP). Consolidated environment of architects in Silesia, while at the same time expresses his thoughts and views on architecture. Michejda adhered to modern architecture. In his view, this meant primarily the rational architecture, purposeful, economical, but in constant connection with art and aesthetic values and taking into account the place in which to arise. According to Michejda only this approach leads to good architecture: the combination of functionality and aesthetics.
Professional activities led to the outbreak of World War II. In January 1941 he was deported with his family from Katowice. He spent the war in Radom, devoting himself intensely to painting. After the war, because of illness, he never returned to work. He died in 1955 Iwonicz-Zdroj.


surface of the wall surrounding the window or door opening on its sides. Usually perpendicular or inclined to the face of the building.

Winter Garden

glass enclosed loggia walls. The idea of functionalism implies access of light, greenery and the surrounding space into residential blocks. In a cramped downtown of Katowice Winter Gardens were a substitute for nature, and large glass lightened interior apartments.
Pilaster – is a slightly-projecting column built into or applied to the face of a wall. Most commonly flattened or rectangular in form, pilasters can also take a half-round form or the shape of any type of column, including tortile.


space in the lower part of the building, which arises from the withdrawal of its outer wall to the height of land to a height not exceeding two storeys. Most frequently limited by pillars or columns. Arcades are mainly used in order to obtain more space for pedestrian traffic.


(from Italian) is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls. This idea was widely used in Ancient Greece and has influenced many cultures, including most Western cultures.

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